The creative design and development of structures and machines using science are all engineering techniques. Being a broad field, engineering has its main categories or rather disciplines namely:
1. Chemical engineering.
2. Civil engineering.
3. Electrical engineering
4. Mechanical engineering.
More sub-disciplines are further derived from these main disciplines. These disciplines offer the skills needed in the field. I have discussed them further below.
1. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
It involves the application of chemistry for mass production of a variety of products like: fuel, fertilizers, paper products, petroleum, pesticides, industrial chemicals like salts and many more. Chemical engineering is further divided into sub- disciplines;
It specializes in mass production of molecules.
It specializes in the manufacture of bio chemicals.
- It involves the application of the properties of matter in the field of engineering.
- Process and control systems engineering
- Its main specialty is in the operation of chemical processes.
2. CIVIL ENGINEERING
This involves the construction of buildings and structures, infrastructure and public works. Its sub-disciplines include;
- Geo technical engineering.
- Mining engineering.
- Structural engineering.
- Environmental engineering
- Transportation engineering
- Water resources engineering.
3. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
This is a broad discipline that involves the study of all electronic materials, electronic energy, systems and devices. It has the following sub-disciplines.
Computer engineering– It is the design and manipulation of computing systems. It specializes in software, network and hardware engineering. Here is a closer overview of computer engineering.
Electronic engineering– It involves devising of circuits that use electromagnetic energy. It specializes in control and telecommunication engineering, robotics, computer architecture, information technology, computer design, intelligence and operating systems.
Power engineering– Involves the devising if electrical devices such as the electric motors and transformers. It also involves electricity transmitting and generating processes.
Optical engineering– Involves devising devices that use the electromagnetic radiation.
4. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
This is the broadest discipline in engineering which involves machines, mechanical systems, energy converting systems and devices. It specializes in thermodynamics, solid and fluid mechanics and mechanical design. The following are its sub-disciplines;
Thermal engineering– It involves the heating and cooling processes for example refrigeration.
Manufacturing engineering– Involves the manufacturing process of tools and machines.
Sport engineering– Involves the whole process of designing of sport equipment.
Acoustical engineering– Involves the control of vibration.
Vehicle engineering– Involves designing and manufacturing of the appliances that control vehicles.
Energy engineering– It is a field that generally involves energy consumption.
Engineering is a broad field and therefore, other than the above discussed divisions and subdivisions of engineering, we also have other fields including geo technical engineering, metallurgical engineering, marine engineering, nuclear and ocean engineering among many others.